ETRIS: Education & Training Resources in In-Vivo Sciences

Animal welfare & husbandry

Humane Endpoints

Humane Endpoints in laboratory animal experimentation provides information and guidance on humane endpoints, and the recognition of pain and distress in research animals. Whilst the materials and resources within it relate specifically to studies utilising rats and mice, the basic information is translatable to other species of research animals. The resource comprises of two sections, an open section, accessible to all, which defines humane endpoints and provides general information on the normal behaviour of mice and rats, an overview of relevant legislation and a database of publications. The closed section, which requires registration (available to individuals involved in research animal welfare, biomedical research or education), contains in-depth information on the behaviour of laboratory rats and mice, clinical signs, assessment of pain and distress in these species and their pathology. It includes interactive training materials, photographs and videos of most clinical signs and a forum for the exchange of information.

This resource has been developed by the Netherlands Centre Alternatives to animal use (NCA) and is available in English, French, Dutch, Spanish and German. Copyright of all materials is retained by the sites developers.

The resource can be used as an information portal for individuals involved in research animal welfare, husbandry or biomedical research. It is suitable for use in education, training and Continued Professional Development, at all levels from undergraduate to researcher. The site also provides a platform to discuss findings and share problems with colleagues or request information on best practice.

Other resources in this category:

  • A Guide to the Behavior & Enrichment of Laboratory Rodents - view
  • Animal Welfare Information Center - view
  • Assessing animal welfare and suffering - view
  • Basic Assessment of Laboratory Animal Health and Welfare - view
  • Code of Practice for the Housing and Care of Animals Bred, Supplied or Used for Scientific Purposes - view
  • Common Marmoset care - view
  • Euthanasia of Animals - view
  • Extended Welfare Assessment Grid - view
  • Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals - view
  • Humane Endpoints - view
  • Mouse Welfare Terms - view
  • Pain assessment: Grimace scales - view
  • Recognising post-operative pain in animals - view
  • Recognition & prevention of pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals - view
  • Recognizing Pain in Animals - view
  • Refining Dog Care - view
  • Rodent Reference Information - view
  • Severe Suffering - view
  • Severity Assessment Framework - view
  • Severity Assessment Road Map - view
  • The Macaque Website - view

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